In 2015, in current price terms Italy’s gross domestic expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) was nearly 22,2 billion euro. It increased by 1.7% compared to 2014. In constant price terms, it increased by 0.9%.
The R&D intensity (the ratio of GERD to GDP) was 1.34%, as observed in 2014.
The expenditure on intramural Research and Development increased on the previous year for the Business enterprises (+4.4%) and the Private non-profit sector (6.8%), while Government and Higher education sectors registered a reduction (respectively -1.7% and -2.8%)
The private component of expenditure on the intramural R&D (Business enterprises+Private non-profit sector) increased, rising from 59.7% of total R&D spent in 2014 to 61.4% in 2015. The contribution of government fell by 0.5 percentage points (from 13.6% to 13.1%). The contribution of the Higher education sector was 25.5% (26.7% in 2014).
In 2015 the number of public and private employees involved in R&D activities (measured in terms of “full-time equivalent units”) amounted to 259,167 units; it increased by 3.9% compared to 2014. Growth covered all the four sectors with different values: +7.1% in Private no profit institutions,+5.8% in Business enterprises, +2.2 in the Higher education sector and +0.4% in the Public institutions.
In 2015 the number of researchers (in terms of full-time equivalents) was equal to 125,875 units, a 6.5% increase compared to 2014. The growth was visible in all the four sectors, especially in Business enterprises (+13.9%) and Private non-profit sector (+7.0%).
The provisional data for 2016, given by the persons interviewed, showed a decrease in GERD both in current terms (-2.5% compared to 2015) and in constant price terms (-3.2%).
The provisional data for 2017, compared to the previous year, confirmed a -2.2% decrease for the Business enterprises, a rise for the Public institutions (+3.8%) and Private non profit sector (+0.8%).
The Italy’s Government support for R&D activities, measured by the Government budget appropriations or outlay for R&D (GBAORD), grew compared to the forecast expenditure settled in 2015, passing from 8,4 billion euro to 8,6.