In 2013, in current price terms, Italy’s gross domestic expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) was near to 21 billion euro. It increased by 2.3% compared to 2012. In constant price terms, it increased by 1.1%.
GERD represented 1.31% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), updated according to the new system of national accounts (Esa 2010). There was an increase compared to 2012 (1.27%).
In current price terms business enterprises expenditure on R&D (BERD) increased by 3.4%, accounting for 54.7% of total R&D spent in 2013. Government’s expenditure on R&D decreased by 3.4% (14.0% of total R&D spent in 2013). R&D expenditure in the higher education sector and in the private non profit sector rose by 3.3% (respectively 28.3% and 3.0% of total R&D spent in 2013).
Compared to 2012, current expenditure on intramural R&D increased in all geographical areas. In the North-West area it was +0.6% and in the North-East +4.0%. In 2012 these two areas accounted for 60.3% of GERD. Increases were also recorded in central Italy (+1.6%) and in the South and Islands area (+5.3%).
In 2013, the number of public and private employees involved in R&D activities (measured in terms of “full-time equivalent units”) amounted to 246,764 units; it increased by 2.7% compared to 2012.
R&D personnel increased in business enterprises (+3.8% ), public institutions (+3.1%), private non profit institutions and the higher education sector (+1.0%).
The number of researchers (in terms of full-time equivalents) was 116,163 units, a 4.9% rise compared to 2012.
Provisional data for 2013 showed a decrease in GERD both in current terms (-1.0% compared to 2012) and a decrease of 1.8% in constant price terms.
Provisional data for 2015 showed a decrease of 2.9% in public institutions and an increase of 1.0% in BERD (not available forecast data for the universities).
The Italy’s Government support for R&D activities, measured by the Government budget appropriations or outlay for R&D (GBAORD), amounting to 8.1 billion euro for 2014 (initial forecasts of expenditure), was down compared to the forecast expenditure settled in 2013 (8.4 billion euro).