In the comprehensive revision of national accounts accompanying the migration to the ESA 2010, Istat has developed an in-depth revision of all the methodologies used to measure the underground production. This is defined as the production in legal activities that is deliberately concealed from the public authorities to avoid payment of taxes or compliance with regulations. Estimates of some specific illegal activities (trading of drugs, tobacco smuggling, and prostitution) have been included in national accounts, too.
The value added produced by underground activities amounted to 190 billion euro in 2013, that is 11.9% of Gdp (compared to 11.7% in 2012 and 11.4% in 2011). The value added related to illegal activities amounted to approximately 16 billion euro in 2013. The total Non observed economy (underground and illegal economy) wss 206 billion euro (12.9% of Gdp).
In 2013, 47.9% of underground economy stemmed from under-reporting of value added, 34.7% from value added produced using undeclared work, 9.4% from other components (undeclared rents, tips and Gdp balancing procedure), and 8% from illegal activities.
In 2013 the value added produced by the underground economy accounted for 32.9% of the total value added in Other service activities, for 26.2% in Trade, transportation, accomodation and food service and for 23.4% in Costruction.